Pinus caribaea (Caribbean Pine) main species of economic and forestry interest in the family Pinaceae

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Knowing the characteristics of the forest species, allows us to choose the species that has the best qualities to carve our furniture, also know the morphological potential of the wood gives us an idea of the duration and degree of resistance that have our furniture. In this issue, I will share scientific information about the morphometric dendrology, bark morphology, and forest exploitation of the species Pinus caribaea (Caribbean Pine).


Introduction


From the family Pinaceae Pinus caribaea it is the tree of Caribbean origin with greater agroforestry acceptance, this because, it has shown a high degree of edafoclimatic adaptability in eco-regions of Africa, Asia, North America, Oceania and South America, which has allowed its use at the level of cultivation and use as wood for the construction of buildings, manufacture of furniture, obtaining posts for electrical cables and telecommunications networks.

In the case of Venezuela, the Caribbean Pine as it is commonly distinguished in the country to P. caribaea, is a specimen that presents ample edafoclimatic adaptability in the eastern states, as it is reflected in the great established forest extensions of this species in wooded areas of Anzoátegui and Monagas [1].

Now, knowing the agroforestry potential that exhibits Pinus caribaea, the objective of this post is to socialize botanical elements related to the morphometric dendrology, morphology of the bark, and use of this important resource.


General features


Taxonomy and distribution

Pinus caribaea, is a plant species of woody biotype, artificially located in the Division: Pinophyta., Class: Pinopsida., Order: Pinales., Family: Pinaceae, Gender: Pinus and Species: caribaea plant biological material originating in Central America, and of wide geographical distribution with potential for forestry, erosion control, windbreaks and ornamental use [2].

Common names

The common name assigned to Pinus caribaea is very homogeneous, being distinguished in most of the Caribbean and South American countries as Caribbean Pine, with the exception of Guatemala where it is distinguished as Pine of the Petén.

Fig. 2 Branch systems and crown morphology of Pinus caribaea. Public domain image Author: Patrice, 2018 / CC BY-SA 2.0

Vegetative and reproductive morphology

The specimens of Pinus caribaea, are evergreen trees with vegetative laminae of triangular morphology in the cross section, with foliar fascicles constituted by units in form of needles, with numerous, sessile, short and grouped masculine stróbils in the inferior section of the glass, feminine stróbils located in the superior area of the glass, it is important to mention that the reproductive stróbils of P caribaea are characterized by not remaining in the branches once the seeds have been released.

Fig. 3 Vegetative films with triangular morphology and needle appearance of - Pinus caribaea. Public domain image, Author: David J. Stang, 2008 / CC BY-SA 4.0

Edaphoclimatology of Caribbean Pine

Caribbean Pine trees are characterized by their growth, development and reproduction in warm subtropical humid forests, which exhibit average annual rainfall in the order of 1,450 mm, average annual temperature between 21 and 25°C, in relation to soil requirements, specimens of Pinus caribaea, show their maximum biological potential in deep, aerated soils, sandy-clayy texture and pH between 4 and 6.5.

Economic and forestry interest

The originating wood of adult stems of Pinus caribaea, is characterized by being very heavy, semidura, of easy mechanized and drying, does not present/display/display disadvantage with the adhered one of glues and painting, in addition is resistant to the screwed one that is executed in the processes of industrial assemblies, on the other hand, is important to indicate that the quality of the wood of P. caribaea does not depend exclusively on the genetic load of the specimens, or on the agroforestry management, since the environmental conditions of the eco-regions where it grows determine the morphological characteristics of the stem, hence, in regions with soil-climatic potential, as in the case of Venezuela, there is economic and forestry interest in continuing to establish commercial plantations of Caribbean Pine wood.


Morphometric STEM dendrology


Morphometry of the Caribbean Pine Stems

In relation to the morphometry of the stems of Pinus caribaea, can reach 45 meters (m) of height in agroforestry conditions, nevertheless, in natural ecosystems the average height is located between 20 and 30 m, with diameters around 45 centimeters, they show cylindrical trunks, Straight or slightly curved, Caribbean Pine wood exhibits coarse texture with presence of irregularities in the orientation of the fibres, in natural conditions it shows a pale yellow color in the sapwood and reddish brown in the heartwood, essentially straight grain [3].

Morphology of the cortex

The bark exhibited by the stems of Pinus caribaea, is of considerably thin morphology, in comparison to other commercial genera of the Pinaceae family, with a shade of variable coloring between reddish to brown, and structurally presents formation of thick plates, with deep vertical and horizontal indentations.

Fig. 4 Caribbean Pine stem bark - Pinus caribaea. Public domain image, Author: David J. Stang, 2008 / CC BY-SA 4.0


Forest harvesting


Morphological potential of wood

According to technical considerations, issued by researchers attached to the FAO, the rapid growth shown by the specimens of the Pinophyta division, represents the main forestry potential of biological materials such as Pinus caribaea, whose wood from the commercial point of view meets international quality standards mainly within the sectors of construction and manufacture of items such as furniture, flooring, plywood, among others [4] – [5].


SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS PUBLICATION


  • This manuscript, admitted to contribute to the HIVE platform the socialization of botanical and forest content related to the taxonomy and distribution of the tree species Pinus caribaea, presenting descriptive content on its vegetative and reproductive morphology, soil-climatic factors, economic and forest interest, additionally synthesizing the commercial potential of Caribbean Pine wood, in addition to the potential exhibited by the resin produced by its stems.


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES CONSULTED AND CITED:


[1] Reyes E., Valero S., Molina Y., and Betancourt J. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus Caribaea var. hondurensis, no resins and resins from plantations Uverito, state Monagas, Venezuela. Article: Online access

[2] INAB. Instituto Nacional de Bosques. Pino caribe (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl.) W. H. Barrett & Golfari). Paquete tecnológico forestal. Guatemala. 2017:37. Article: Online access

[3] PROINVER. Nuestras especies: Pino Caribe, madera aserrada. 2019: 11. Online access

[4] FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Article: Online access

[5] Herrera A., y Morales A. Pro piedades y Usos potenciales de 100 maderas Nicaragüenses, Nicaragua, Instituto Nicaragüense de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente (IRENA). Servicio forestal Nacional, Departamento de Investigad6n forestal, Laboratorio de Tecnología de la madera. 1993:178. Article: Online access


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OBSERVATION

The cover image was designed by the author: @lupafilotaxia, incorporating the background image of Dominio público, Autor: David J. Stang, 2008 / CC BY-SA 4.0.



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