BIOLOGICAL MECHANISM // The defensive arsenal of plants. Part I

in Project HOPElast month

The motor, visual, auditory and olfactory actions, and the particularity of emitting sounds, are in a way the sum of a perfect biological mechanism that we humans have to defend ourselves, and that has served to perpetuate us as a species in a very hostile natural environment in whose adaptive process survives the most suitable, there is no doubt, that this set of qualities we have taken advantage of to resist attacks where there is a high risk of death, Elementarily, from the mechanical point of view, we use our extremities as personal defense devices, and as mobile units to move and get away from high-risk scenarios, we use our voices to shout and ask for help. On the other hand, if we annex all the artificial context we go to nowadays to protect our physical integrity, we also use them; pepper gas, penetrating sharp objects, firearms, alarms, electric fences, sophisticated communication systems to ask for help from relatives, neighbors, friends and police institutions, among others.

Now, this favorable reality that we humans have is not the same scenario that plant species have to survive, therefore, the question arises, how do plants defend themselves, being immobile species and without a defensive biological mechanism like ours?.

Let's start by explaining that even though plants do not have a biological defense mechanism like ours, they do have systems to defend themselves through physical methods, as well as complex phytochemical reactions to neutralize their predators, as well as specific cytotoxic defense strategies to eliminate their attackers, which in general terms are the responses used by plant species as a defensive arsenal that has allowed them to survive in a very hostile terrestrial environment.

In this delivery, I wanted to share with all users of the HIVE platform the effective defense system that uses the plant species Achyranthes aspera, located in the Division: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Caryophyllales, Family: Amaranthaceae, and widely known as African Cadillo, Mousetail, Fox, or Skunk.

Fig. 2 Sharp lignified structures of Achyranthes aspera. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

In wild environments, and even in those disturbed by man, Achyranthes aspera is a highly successful plant species that has been categorized as arvense (formerly a weed), since it grows and develops optimally. Its success can be measured by the sharp structures it uses as a natural defense system, to neutralize and eliminate herbivores that are essentially its main enemies, since they usually attack it to consume its leaf blades (leaves) .

In botanical terms, basically, these sophisticated, sharp structures are morphological adaptations called tepals (set of sepals and flower petals) of a hard, spinescent, and sharp aspect that have allowed Achyranthes aspera to confront its predators, without making any type of displacement, since these strongly lignified vegetative structures, on the one hand, serve as a physical barrier, and on being consumed they induce irritation to the oral system, stomach wounds by abrasion, and spills of hemolymph in some insects.

Fig. 3 Punctured structures cause abraded stomach wounds. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

This defensive adjustment, which the Achyranthes aspera specimens exhibit, is part of a series of adaptations that plants have made to their morphological structures, and which throughout the evolutionary process have positioned them as the dominant organisms on our planet. In the following, I will be specifying impressive plant defense mechanisms, in the search for socializing on the HIVE platform the biological details of each of these fascinating defense mechanisms.


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES CONSULTED:


[1] Järemo J., and Palmqvist E. Plant compensatory growth: A conquering strategy in plant-herbivore interactions? Evolutionary Ecology. 2001; 15; 2: 91-102. Article: Online access

[2] Tibebu B. Defense Mechanisms of Plants to Insect Pests: From Morphological to Biochemical Approach. Trends Tech Sci Res. 2018; 2; 2. Article: Online access


Original manuscript, uploaded from the Project HOPE community website



Sort:  

#Posh Twitter:

Congratulations, your post has been upvoted by @dsc-r2cornell, which is the curating account for @R2cornell's Discord Community.

Manually curated by @jasonmunapasee

r2cornell_curation_banner.png

Hello appreciated, @lupafilotaxia.

It is an honor for us to have this type of post, of such high quality and professionalism, within our community.

Please spare few minutes and read how project.hope is organized and learn about our economy.

That would help you understand more our goals and how are we trying to achieve them. Hopefully you will join our community and become strong part of it :)

Do you use telegram or discord? If you do then join our server and give me a shout. I would gladly share with you goals of our community and introduce to others from our team.

Our discord server: https://discord.gg/uWMJTaW

And Remember: No to content plagiarism!

Regards, @juanmolina
@project.hope co-founder

@juanmolina I will just read the bases and organization of the project.hope. Yesterday I joined your Discord server, as far as possible I hope to gradually establish interaction with the community. Best regards.

Thank you very much, for your attentive reply.

We'll always willing to interact with you.

Asset 5.png

verde 2 profundida.png

Your post is wonderful and that's why it has been manually curated for @adiwathrive and mentioned in Diyocoi curing column of this week by @auelitairene.

Our project seeks to motivate our community to develop content in different branches of life. It doesn't matter if you speak English or Spanish, our foundation is based on the principles of balance, harmony and consciousness. Click here if you want to know more here. Our account is supported by @naturalmedicine and @imagenius, so our vote also rewards with and interesting amount of the LOTUS token.

If you want to join our project, delegate to @adiwathrive and receive our support with upvotes, reblogs, mentions and contests where you can win in HIVE and more. To Delegate Here!

We encourage you to use the #adiwa #lotus #naturalmedicine or #adiwathrive tags so we can always marvel at your posts and share them too.

Asset 4.png

It is gratifying to receive your support, I am glad to know that the publication has receptivity, greetings to your healing team.

 last month Reveal Comment