An incubator is an invention that was developed to provide support for infants majorly pre mature which is a space or a bed like place for babies that has controls where babies can be till their vital organs develop and becomes strong.

Instead of thinking of it as just a bed for babies it is more like a more conducive environment that is controlled by physicians for babies that were born before their time, they are able to control the temperature, oxygen, light and humidity for the baby convenience, this is actually an invention done to help many infants that couldn't survive after been born earlier than they ought to be born.

It also helps protect the children from impurities, noise and light that might cause harm to their organs and their body as a whole, the humidity control helps to protect the baby skin from brittle and cracking due to loose of water if the baby is exposed to the natural environment. The incubator includes equipment that tracks the baby's vital sigbsike temperature, heart rate etc.


Stephane Tarnier a french obstetrician was the first person to develop a baby incubator after seeing where baby chicks are been kept in an incubator, so he thought such innovations can be created for baby humans, this idea wasn't welcomed by alot of people when he first created it.



As at the time he created the incubator, the fee for taking care of pre mature babies were very expensive and the children had 50 - 50 chance of either living or dieing so many thought the incubator was pointless as mortality rate of pre mature babies was very high and alot of physician said his invention wasn't scientific and they didn't really have enough confidence that the incubator could save lives.

After his retirement Pierre Budin picked up his work and starting where he stopped and did alot of research until he could no longer get funds for the incubators so he decided to display the incubators at the Berlin world fair in 1896 and this was the begining of milestone for the incubator.

It was at the fair that Martin Couney who was a German saw the display of the incubators and babies which Budin brought and he thought go himself that the machine could actually save lives and alot of people were attached to the stand watching now the doctor cared for the baby and gave them life.

After the exhibit Couney knew that this was a potential lifesaver and he could do something if the hospitals aren't ready to buy and care for the premature babies, although it was believed he did that because he had a premature baby at hand. Couney then got the inventions and did the exhibit for years by receiving children and taking care of them for free even with his own daughter.

Apart from the incubator been a sideshow to oekoke slot of hospitals then began to adopt the incubator and this was what made incubators widely accepted today.


Ever since the emergence of incubators there have been different types of inventions that has been invented, but among all there are three common ones which we will talk about below each having it's own advantage and disadvantages.

1. Open incubator



This incubator is often reffereed to as RADIANT WARMER, the open incubator has a flat surface which usually have a radiant heat element that is either above or below the surface where the baby will be placed, the radiant warmer is designed in a way that it automatically controls itself according to the temperature of the child per time through the baby's skin even with the designs of the incubators there is still an open space above the child.

Due to the fact that the incubator is open the humidity can't be controlled compared to a closed incubator but they are useful for checking the vital sign of the baby and warming them. This incubator allows for skin to skin contact with the baby as one can touch the baby directly from.above.

This incubator is primarily for baby that needs to be warned for a short time and have their vital details checked. The limitations of this incubator is that one can't protect the chokd from germs or micro organisms and also the humidity can't be controlled.




A closed incubator is quite different from an open incubator as a closed incubator is an incubator where the baby is enclosed in a space but which has holes around it where human hands can pass through and also allow for intravenous to pass through but designed so as to shield the child from.airborne germs, too much light, noise and some other factors. It is more like living in a climate controlled space.

A closed incubator is designed to allow warm air to be into the incubator through a canaoiy that is surrounding the baby. There are two control of the humidity and temperature of the incubator either manually by turning the knobs attached to the incubator or automatically when a sensor is attached to the baby skin and the incubator which changes the humidity and temperature as per the feedback gotten from the sensor to the incubator the incubators that adjust itself automatically is known as SERVO CONTROL INCUBATORS.

The incubator is ideal for babies who needs their own micro environments and needs protection from germs, lightz noise and humidity some closed indicators have double walls which help to prevent heat and air loss.




portable incubator or transport incubator as the name implies simply means it's a moveable incubator, they are used to transport baby from one location to another, it can be used when a bay needs to be taken from one hospital to another or from one specialist to another if the baby needs additional care, it is designed to have a mini ventilator, an intravenous pump, a cardio respiratory monitor, a pulse oximeter and an in built oxygen supply to help the child and monitor the baby vital signs, they actually fit well in smaller spaces since they are to be taken around.


  1. Premature birth
  2. Breathing issues
  3. Jaundice
  4. Infection
  5. Gestational diabetes
  6. Long delivery
  7. Low birth weight etc

There are some limitations to this incubators which includes

  1. Cost of maintenance and cost of running which is quite expensive for most people to afford
  1. It separate the baby from the family and especially the mother who is more attached to the child than every other person. It causes emotional stress for the mother.


In conclusion, baby incubator might sound scary or look like a bad equipment to people especially Africans, but it is a good innovation which has reduced the death of prematures and has saved more lives, Couney was able to save over 6500 babies and there was a testimony of one of them that lived over 80 years, it doesn't reduce their life span it saves their lives.

references consulted and recommended

Who is Mandate?

Mandate is by name Adeniji Adeshina, a student of Civil and Environmental Engineering from Kwara State University. I hail from Mopamuro Kogi state Nigeria


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I liked this article very much! Dr. Budin was surely a hero. Not only clever, and creative, but altruistic. He wanted to save lives.

When my daughter was born I walked passed the nursery (in the hospital) and noticed she was shivering. I called the nurse and they immediately put her in an incubator. She stayed there for a day, until she got warm and toasty, but I guess I have Dr. Budin to thank for that.

Thank you for this article.


Thank you for stopping by to read it out

I really appreciate